One of the issues that has always been raised in human life is truth. All groups and individuals resort to the concept of right and justice in order to defend their claims and actions. This valuable category has overshadowed all aspects of human individual and social life. Everyone considers himself right and in order to justify himself, he introduces his position as right and the position of the other party as false. Even the most wicked people, in the most indecent deeds, consider themselves rightful, because they believe that human beings are by nature, right-wing and anti-false. Therefore, it is necessary to have as much as possible, theoretically, a clear picture of right and wrong in our minds so that we do not make mistakes in evaluating our own work and the work of others. It is necessary to recognize its rights and characteristics in order to separate the head from the neck.
Let us not forget that by being right and believing in the truth and living by it, it keeps us on the path, and a vicious circle in this orbit throws us miles away from the path with the force of escapism. Slowly Consider the words of Imam Ali who said:
Happiness arises in the company of truth.
The meaning of the TRUTH
For truth, different meanings are mentioned:
- Truth means anti-false, truth is a fixed existence.
- Everything that is in line with reality is the truth.
Imam Ali said: The circle of truth in describing and expressing is wider than anything, but when Acting in fairness, its scope is narrower and narrower than anything else; It is used that the principle of Truth makes sense when we look at it fairly and practically.
- Truth is something which has reality and false is something which has no reality;
- Truth is the acknowledgment of the real facts;
What Islam has to say about the TRUTH?
The establishment of truth among the people is very important in Islam. The word “TRUTH” with its derivatives is mentioned 287 times and the word falsehood is mentioned 35 times in the Qur’an.
God says to His Holy Prophet: “Indeed We have sent down to you the Book with the TRUTH, so that you may judge between the people by What God has shown you; (Quran-Chapter-4, Verse-105)
” this verse clearly says that, the purpose of sending the heavenly book is to administer TRUTH and Justice among the people.
The Truth and Justice are the soul and spirit of the religion of God called Islam.
Imam Ali considers the purpose of forming a government to be the establishment of TRUTH and Justice, the result of which is the reform of affairs, the provision of security and comfort for the oppressed people, and the implementation of divine laws.
Therefore, he said to one of his appointed governors “Abdullah Ibn Abbas:
I swear by God, this shoe is more beloved to me than ruling over you, unless I establish a right or repel falsehood with it.
Truth-seeking is an innate desire that is rooted in all human beings. Therefore, in the Holy Qur’an, it relies on truth in many cases, which shows that it has accepted the existence of this tendency in human beings. Such as the verse:
“The is the TRUTH from your Lord, so do not be among the Skeptics.”
The Characteristics of the TRUTH
Examining the characteristics of right and wrong helps us in the true knowledge of right and wrong. The Holy Qur’an, in the form of a beautiful example, has stated the signs and criteria of truth and falsehood:
“God sends down rain from the sky, causing the valleys to flow, each according to its capacity. The currents then carry along rising foam, similar to the slag produced from metal that people melt in the fire for ornaments or tools. This is how Allah compares truth to falsehood. The ˹worthless˺ residue is then cast away, but what benefits people remains on the earth. This is how Allah sets forth parables” (Quran- chapter-13, verse-17)
The characteristics of right and wrong that are used in this verse are:
1- Truth is stable and false is subject to destruction: In this verse, God considers truth as water and pure metal that remains in its path on earth, but falsehood is like foam on water or melted on metals. Which can be gone and turned off.
2- Falsehood has no benefit, but truth is the source of blessings. From the floors on the water, no flower grows and no tree grows green, but water is the source of life and growth of living things and plants.
3- Falsehood has a deceptive and hollow appearance, and at the same time, like the foam on the water, it is selfish and ambitious, but the truth is far from any kind of deception.
4 – Falsehood owes its ostentation and temporary stability to the truth. Falsehood always enters the field in the guise of truth and the mask of truth, and in this way, introduces itself instead of truth. False floors use the position of water, and if there was no water, the floor would not be able to show off. In the words, Force is originally the property of truth and falsehood moves with the force of truth.
5 – Falsehood manifests itself in various forms and faces. As foam is exposed on both water and molten metals. The Holy Quran said: “And you will not be against the fire”; Foam appears not only on water, but also on molten metals.
6 – Falsehood always uses turbulent environments and shows itself; As the floor shows itself when the flood falls down the steep slope of the mountains with excitement and passion, but when the water reaches the plains and smooth points, it turns to extinction.
How to distinguish between TRUTH and False?
One of the problems of human beings is that Man cannot distinguish between right and wrong easily. although God has shown the path of truth well.
Imam Ali says: God has revealed the path of truth to you and kept its paths clear. But sometimes right and wrong are mixed in such a way that it becomes difficult for even pure-hearted people to know what is right and wrong. This is because the criteria of right and wrong have not been recognized, and instead of setting the criterion of truth as truth itself and being right and wrong, they look at people. In fact, characterization has prevented them from turning to the right.
On this basis, We must know right and wrong itself and then we will be able to know its people.
The followings are considered to be true and the source of TRUTH:
- God: God is the Absolute Truth: “This is the God of Truth;
- The word of God (The Quran): The Quran has rightly described itself in several verses. The word of God, like God Himself, is absolute truth and there is no falsehood in it.
“And that for the dear book there is no falsehood; This book has the honour that falsehood has no way to it.”
Imam Ali says: The Book of God is a speaker among you whose tongue never tires of speaking the truth.
- The Holy Prophet (PBUH):. God says: In fact, he has come to them with the truth, but most of them are resentful of the truth.(Quran, Chapter-5, verse-75)
Imam Ali (AS) says: Muhammad revealed the truth and advised the people.
- The religion of God-Islam: The insights and instructions offered to human beings in the form of Islam are the standard of truth.
Imam Ali (AS) says: Islam has pillars that God has established in the depths of truth and has established its foundation.
- The chosen 12 divine leaders from the progeny of the Prophet (PBUH):
Imam Ali says: God raised the flag and sign of truth among us (Ahl al-Bayt). Whoever precedes it has left the religion, and whoever opposes it has perished, and only whoever joins them has joined the truth.
The greatest symbol of truth is the Commander of the Faithful. Whoever is in tune and step with that Imam in thought and action is close to the truth, and whoever distances himself from him is far from the truth.
Basically, truth finds meaning with Ali, and Ali has manifested and become one with truth. The Prophet of Islam (PBUH) always referred to the issue that “Ali is with the Truth and the Truth is with Ali; the Truth is with Ali and Ali is with the truth.” This hadith has been narrated by Shiites and Sunnis both.
Five ways to know the TRUTH
According to the mentioned criteria, if it is not polluted with the dust of intentionality and selfishness and observance of fairness, with the help of factors, the right and wrong ways in political, cultural, economic and social fields can be separated from each other. کرد:
1 – Natural senses and test equipment: These things, although relatively, can acquaint us with the two.
2- Thought and reason: Imam Ali (AS) says: Your intellect is sufficient to show the way of error (falsehood) from guidance (truth). (31) A person who, with the help of his intellect and wisdom, loses a substance He found Zahragin, in fact, he found a way to diagnose eating it incorrectly. And when he knows the useful properties and accessories of a fact by sense and thought, he has acquired the right way to reach the truth.
3- Conscience: One of the tools of knowing and recognizing a person is his conscience. The Holy Qur’an deals with the conscience and soul of Luwama along with the Day of Judgment (32) to show that God has created in the human soul the same amount that He has on the Day of Judgment. Master Motahhari says: “[The Qur’an] wants to say that we have given such a rebuke to mankind who deals with the truth exactly, understands the truth.” (33)
4- Insight: One of the important tools of knowing right and wrong is insight and enlightenment which is obtained in the shadow of piety and God-fearing. The Holy Qur’an says: If you have divine piety, God will make for you the difference (the means of measuring right from wrong); (34) that is, in the light of piety, it will be clear that you can easily distinguish right from wrong. In another verse, he says: “And fear God and know God; (35) Be pious so that God may impart to you the sciences.”
It is possible to find illiterate people who recognize falsehood in any outfit and appearance very quickly, and perhaps scientists who are incapable of correct diagnosis. The reason is that one has a difference and the other does not. Verses and narrations are used which are based on the sight of the inner eye and hearing of the inner ear. And the resurrection of the prophets has been in this direction.
The Kharijites of Nahrawan were pious and good-natured and holy people, but they did not have insight and enlightenment, so they made a mistake in distinguishing between right and wrong and stood up to their Imam.
Insight is not only gained by learning common seminary or university courses, but also with faith, piety, and godliness. On this basis, Imam Ali (AS) says: “This knowledge can not be carried except by sight and patience; This flag of struggle is carried only by people with insight, patience and knowledge in the position of truth. (36)
5 – Presence on the scene: One of the important ways to know right and wrong is to deal directly with events and happenings and to be present in the text of events and enter into issues. Being marginalized and far from the issues does not lead us to a full understanding of the events, because in this case, man may be influenced by rumors or propaganda and distance himself from reality. On this basis, Imam Ali (AS) says: The source of lack of awareness is occultation, because there are no special signs on the forehead of truth that can be used to identify truth and falsehood. (37)
Ways to set up the right
Keeping the right and not deviating from it depends on several factors:
1- Knowing the truth: The first step to establish the truth is knowing the truth, because there is a fine line between right and wrong. Imam Ali (AS) says: For this reason, doubt is called doubt, which is similar to the truth. (38) Therefore, first of all, the fields of ambiguity of the truth or the obstacles to knowing it must be removed. The Imam said: No one persists in doing the right thing unless he is aware of its value. (39)
2 – Effort and effort: It is not possible to establish the right, except with seriousness and continuous effort. Imam Ali (AS) says: “There is no understanding of the truth except in the grave; (40) the truth is not understood except by effort.” With relief and self-cultivation and seeking comfort, no right is taken away. Righteousness depends on the study of science and enduring hardships and scientific and practical jihad.
3 – Hope: Since there may be many wrongdoers, someone who wants the implementation of right and justice, should not look at a few right-wingers, but by joining the right front will increase their number one person and will never be disappointed .
Despair is the scourge of the right foot. Imam Ali (AS) says: There is truth and falsehood and there are followers for each of them. So, if it becomes false and numerous, it is not strange, and it has been so since the distant past, and if the truth becomes few, it is a place of hope that it will increase.
4 – Perseverance: To defend the right, perseverance is necessary, because it may be costly to speak the truth and seek the right. The educated of the school of truth, wherever they see the truth, rise to its aid and fight against the false front and accept its hardships with all their hearts and souls. Imam Ali (AS) says: May God have mercy on the one who, when he sees the truth, rises to its aid and whenever he sees oppression, he prevents it and is always the helper of the truth and the people of truth to the extent that He rushes to the aid of the right to help. (42)
5 – Central justice: The implementation of the right is tied to justice. Imam Ali (AS) says: Justice is the scale of God’s measurement that he has installed for the people in order to implement the truth. (43) Submission to the law and the implementation of the right for relatives and strangers alike, orbit in the right Society institutionalizes.
This was the way of the religious leaders. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) in the implementation of the law, did not consider anything other than considering the right. It is narrated that Umm Salma, the wife of the Prophet (PBUH), had a maid who stole tribal property. He was brought to the Prophet (PBUH) to enforce the law. Umm Salma interceded, but the Imam said to her: This limit is from the limits of God that will not be lost. (44) Imam Hussein (AS) in describing Imam Ali (AS) said: All were equal with him in truth. (45)
That Imam teaches Malik Ashtar: “Obligation of the truth is my necessity of the near and the distant;
6 – Order to rightism: The implementation of the right in society, without public supervision and the implementation of the duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil and advising the right, is not possible. According to the Qur’an, living well is based on four important pillars: faith as the foundation, righteous action as the guarantor of happiness, advising the right as the spread of justice in society, and advising patience as steadfastness The way to aim and prevent despair and pride.
Barriers to rightism
In the path of truth, there are obstacles that prevent man from knowing or achieving the truth, the most important of which are:
1- Following the air of the soul: Fan worship is like a curtain that is drawn on the human intellect and covers the truth from him. One who puts his desires as a criterion instead of divine words and commands certainly does not reach the right and puts personal and group interests before it. Imam Ali (AS) says: Following the air and lust deprives man of the truth and forgets the longings of the Hereafter. (47) They left the truth while they saw it well, but oppression was in line with their desires. Hence, they went along with it. (48)
2 – The fusion of right and wrong: The emergence of doubtful affairs and the fusion of right and wrong, makes it difficult to distinguish right from wrong. In this way, the Kharijites succeeded in turning some people away from the right and wrong fronts and organizing the battle of Nahrawan against Imam Ali (AS). The Imam said in this regard: They adhered to the word of truth and invalidated it. (49)
One of the methods of the false is to use the right and to mix the false with it. They confuse right with wrong so that people become suspicious and people get confused in knowing the whole thing. Imam Ali (AS) says: The beginning of sedition is the carnal airs and then there are the rulings that are considered heresy. The Book of God opposes the rules of heresy, and then individuals unite and form a community based on the same heresy, because if falsehood is separate from fusion with truth, people will not deviate from the truth, and if the truth is from The false cover was removed and the ill-wishers were cut off from it. But part of the truth and part of the falsehood are taken and mixed. (50) Fraudulent and cunning people always present themselves in the clothes of reputable human beings and take the side of the right and introduce themselves as truthful. کردن.
One of the reasons for the apostasy of the people of Syria and the inclination towards Mu’awiyah was his cunning policy of mixing truth with falsehood and deception of the people.
3 – Atmospheric: Some people use quantity as a criterion for distinguishing right from wrong; That is, the majority is considered the criterion of truth simply because it is the majority, while according to Islam, right and wrong have another basis. Just because there are so few, there is no reason to go wrong. If the truth of something was proved by reason and argument. It must be accepted; It does not matter if the supporters are few or many. Therefore, Imam Ali (AS) says: “Do not be afraid in the way of guidance for the people of the people; (51) in the path of guidance, do not be afraid of being alone.”
One of the examples of mating is the arrangement of effects on the audibles and spying. Imam Ali (AS) says: There is no border between right and wrong except for four fingers. It is false to say that I have heard, and it is right to say that I have seen. (52)
Argument and unwarranted curiosity are among the evil temptations that cause doubt in the most obvious matters, and in this case, distancing oneself from the truth is not far from expectation. Imam Ali (AS) says: Whoever has unreasonable curiosity has not stepped on the path of truth and whoever quarrels out of ignorance, his blindness from the truth will continue. (53)
5 – Prejudice: One of the serious obstacles in the way of right seekers is prejudice and stubbornness. The Qur’an tells of people who denied the truth while believing in the truth. 
Addressing Pharaoh, Prophet Moses (pbuh) said: You know that he did not reveal these verses and miracles except to the Lord of the world. (55) However, Pharaoh did not believe in the divine revelations and said to the people: I am a god for you except I do not know. (56)
Prejudice and stubbornness and following one’s inner desires lead a person to a place where he is not even willing to listen to the truth and runs away from the truth. According to the Qur’an, the people of Noah put their fingers in their ears and wrapped their clothes around their heads and faces so that they would not hear or see the truth. (57)
In the time of the Prophet of Islam (PBUH), a group with a commotion and noise, made a commotion so that no one could hear the voice of the Prophet (PBUH) and the pleasant verses of the Qur’an. (58)
In the history of Karbala, it is stated: When Hazrat Seyyed al-Shuhada (AS) was giving a speech, some people caused such a controversy that the voice of the Imam was lost among them. (59) What is the justification for this action other than pride and prejudice? Is he stubborn?
6 – Lack of insight: One of the important obstacles to the truth is the failure of the tool of knowledge and lack of understanding of the truth, which is interpreted in the Qur’an and the words of the Infallibles (AS) to be sealed on the heart. They are deaf and dumb and blind and do not reason. (60)
Lack of insight is due to sin and haram eating and neglect and following the air of the soul. Imam Hussein (AS) addressed the people of Kufa who enthusiastically invited them and then gave up their help and said: Whoever obeys me is one of the grown-ups and whoever opposes me is one of the destroyed, because Your bellies are full of haraam and your hearts are sealed. Woe to you! Why don’t you keep quiet? Why do not you listen? (61)
7 – Worldliness: One of the reasons for people’s evasion of right, is a strong attachment to the world and drowning in material belongings. This group of people has become so preoccupied with the issues of life that they no longer have time to think about the path of right and wrong. They have closed their eyes and ears to real values and real life. According to the Qur’an, like cattle, all they have to do is fill their bellies. (62)
Wealth accumulation, ambition and ambitiousness have been important factors in opposing the truth of the prophets and saints. For this reason, Islamic traditions have considered love of the world as the source of all errors and slips. (63)
8 – Jealousy: Another obstacle to accepting the truth is jealousy and unhealthy competition, which prevents the acceptance of truth and truth. The story of Nu’man ibn Harith is an instructive historical event. When the Messenger of God (PBUH) appointed Imam Ali (AS) to the caliphate on the day of Ghadir, Nu’man ibn Harith came to the service of the Imam and said: You ordered us to testify to the oneness of God and that you are His Messenger, we We also testified, then ordered jihad, Hajj, fasting, prayer and zakat, and we accepted all of this; But now you have appointed this young man as your successor and said: “I am the current Mullah Mullah Mullah”; Is this from you or from God? The Prophet (PBUH) said: I swear by God that there is no god but Him, this is from God.
Nu’man turned away, saying: “O God, if this is the truth from me, then you will be on my stone from the sky; (64) O God! “If this is true and from you, rain a stone from the sky on us.” A stone fell from the sky on him and killed him. Meanwhile, the verse “The questioner asked for the real punishment” was revealed.
Allama Amini in Al-Ghadir has narrated this story from thirty famous Sunni scholars. (65)
Applications of rightism
Normally in everyday life we encounter issues that need to be addressed; As:
1- Witnessing to the truth: A Muslim must be a supporter of the truth and the people of the truth in official and familiar judgments, and if he is asked to testify, he must testify honestly and truthfully, even if it is to his detriment. The Holy Qur’an says: “O you who believe, be the guardians of the installments of the martyrs of God, and if you are yourselves, your parents and relatives; O you who believe, stand up for justice, bear witness to God, even if it is to your detriment or to the detriment of your parents and relatives. ”(66)
Imam Sadegh (AS) also emphasizes this issue and considers it as the truth of faith. (67)
2 – Judging rightly: Arbitration among the people is also one of the issues we face. From time to time, people may call us to arbitration, such as: arbitration between two neighbors, two colleagues, two children, a couple, etc., which is a very serious and responsible matter; As Imam Sadegh (AS) has considered only one group out of the four judging groups as saviors; Those who knowingly judge the truth. (68)
Judging by right and justice is easy at first, but in practice it turns out that it is not so easy, especially if one side of the dispute is a friend and the other is an enemy. It is in such cases that, by the order of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), speaking the truth and judging the truth is difficult and heavy. (69) In order to judge the truth, in addition to the necessary knowledge and awareness, avoid any haste and comprehensive and accurate examination. It is necessary to hear the issue and the reasons of both parties and to observe fairness.
3 – Seeking the right and giving the right: Some consider the right to be taken and some to give it. Christianity is built on the premise that it is a right; That is, he must give back the right that the oppressor has taken. If not, nothing can be done. Some who deny emotion, humanity and human conscience believe that the right can only be obtained.
After rejecting these two theories, Professor Motahhari says: According to Islam, the right can be taken and given; That is, we must fight from two fronts to assert the truth, which is the school of Islam. Islam prepares the one who has stolen the truth with his own education, but he is not satisfied with this. At the same time, he says to the person whose right has been stolen: the right can be taken. You too must stand up for your rights and seize the truth. (70)
For his speech, he refers to the order of Imam Ali (AS) who said: I have heard the Prophet (PBUH) repeatedly that he said: “The sanctity of the ummah does not take away the weak in it, it is the deceit of the strong who do not enjoy it” “No nation or ethnic group can attain the status of holiness (progress and prosperity) unless the weak stand against the strong and demand their rights without stumbling.”
Taking the right and giving the right is a tool of justice, whether small or large, individual or social, political or cultural and economic.
Adel seeks both the rights of himself and others (seeking rights) and returns the rights of others to them. (Entitlement). Imam Ali (AS), in a letter to the leaders of his corps, spoke about the rights of the Supreme Leader and his followers and instructed them to take their rights above the rank and pay their salaries. (72)
4 – Truthfulness: Although the truth is heavy and difficult, but the value of truthfulness is so important that it compensates for its hardships and sufferings. One of the wills of Imam Sajjad and Imam Hussein (as) is the advice to speak the truth. “Patience is on the right and it is dead; Be patient for the right, even if it is bitter and unfortunate. ”(73)
Imam Ali (AS) in his will addressed to Hassan and Hussein (PBUH) has said: “Speak the truth; (74) speak the truth.”
The tendency towards falsehood, humiliation and telling the truth is honorable. Imam Askari (AS) says: No loved one has left the truth except that he has been humiliated and no humiliation has received the truth except that he has attained honor. (75)
Truthfulness is a characteristic of the prophets and saints. So the truth-tellers have also taken their place. Imam Ali (AS) says: The most similar people to the prophets of God are those who speak the truth more and are more tolerant of the truth in practice. (76)
Although speaking and acting according to the right is always and everywhere desirable for the holy sharia, but in some cases it is more important, and that is to speak the truth against the powerful and the oppressor. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) says: The highest jihad is to say the word of truth to the oppressive king. (77)
Truth-telling must be learned from Abu Dharr, who never concealed the truth and defended the truth with a clear accent and courage, and was not conservative in expressing it. He was educated in the school of the Prophet (PBUH) who advised him: Tell the truth even if it is bitter. (78)
5 – Expressing the truth: One of the duties of the community is to declare the truth. But unfortunately, various factors such as air of breath, profit-seeking, power-seeking, etc. have caused the truth to be concealed. This ugly act has led nations and generations astray. Hence, the threat and condemnation that the Qur’an has raised against the concealers of the truth is unique; Where he says: Those who conceal the clear proofs and the means of guidance which We have sent down after We have made it clear to the people in the Book, God will curse them and all those who curse them will curse them. (79) The Prophet of Islam (PBUH) also says: Whenever a scientist is asked what he knows and he conceals it, on the Day of Judgment, a rope of fire will be struck in his mouth. (80)
The scholars of the Book knew the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) as well as their children, but they deliberately concealed the truth. (81)
From the first day of creation, the struggle between right and wrong began with the war and the struggle of Adam and Satan, and continued with the struggle of Abel and Cain, Abraham and Nimrod, Moses and Pharaoh, Ali and Mu’awiyah and Hussein and Yazid. The culmination and transcendent point of this struggle is realized with the uprising of the promised savior of Hazrat Mahdi (pbuh) and he takes the leadership of the group of truth and the truth achieves victory with all its might and glory. He is the result of all the struggles and efforts of the prophets and the fruit of the right-wing struggles. The Holy Qur’an has announced this final victory: “Say: The place of truth and falsehood is false, and falsehood is false; “Say, ‘Truth has come and falsehood has been destroyed, falsehood can be destroyed.’
Imam Baqir (AS) in the interpretation of the above verse has said: This statement is related to the uprising of Qaem (AS) that the false government will be overthrown. (82) It is not without reason that this verse was engraved on his precious arm when he was born. (83)